Handling poisoning in animals.

Discussion in 'Dog Health Care' started by GlassOnion, Dec 21, 2008.

  1. GlassOnion

    GlassOnion Thanks, and Gig 'em.

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    I thought this was a pretty good article (written by a vet) about what to do in the case of suspected poisoning in an animal. It's from the Dolittler blog which can be found here.

    The ASCPA comment is one I didn't know. Will have to keep that in mind.


     
  2. sprintime

    sprintime New Member

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    Good post, especially at this time of year if you live where it's cold and need antifreeze in the car. this is extremely poisonous to both cats and dogs, so please be sure to check the driveway for any possible leaks from cars.
     
  3. Emmanuel

    Emmanuel New Member

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    Thinking about getting your car winterized this fall? Antifreeze is 95% ethylene glycol, (an important chemical used to prevent your car’s radiator from freezing or your windshield from icing) which is toxic to most animals although dogs, and to a lesser extent cats, appear to be primarily affected. Improper storage and handling of this chemical often leads to poisoning of pets since it has a sweet taste that may be attractive to animals. Most poisonings are accidental, but unfortunately, malicious poisonings may also occur. There is a seasonal nature to the toxicity, with poisoning seen most commonly in the fall and winter when antifreeze is most commonly used.

    The chemical formula for ethylene glycol is C2H6O2. It is a colorless and odorless liquid. Antifreeze poisoning is the second most common cause of fatal poisoning in animals according to the American Association of Poison Control Centers. Ethylene glycol is also present in hydraulic brake fluid, motor oil, inks, paints, and wood stains.

    The mortality rate in dogs poisoned by antifreeze ranges from 50 to 70% and is thought to be even higher in cats. A relatively small dose of ethylene glycol is necessary to cause the death of a pet. The minimum lethal dose of ethylene glycol is 4.4 ml/kg in dogs and a mere 1.4 ml/kg in cats.

    Antifreeze is quickly absorbed from the digestive tract with peak blood concentrations occurring within three hours of ingestion. Absorption may be delayed when food is in the stomach. Approximately 50% of the ingested ethylene glycol will be excreted unchanged by the kidneys. The other 50% of ingested ethylene glycol is metabolized by an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the liver and to a much lesser extent in the kidneys, producing toxic metabolites which cause severe metabolic acidosis and kidney failure. Glycoaldehyde and glycolic acid are thought to be the metabolites primarily responsible for the toxicosis.

    Clinical signs of antifreeze toxicity mimic those seen with marijuana, methanol, or ethanol (alcohol) intoxication. The patient will vomit due to GI irritation; they tend to have increased thirst and urination and may exhibit neurologic clinical signs. Neurologic signs are those attributed to the central nervous system, including depression, ataxia (unbalanced), stupor, and an inability of the pet to get up or right itself.

    Clinical signs of acute kidney failure occur 12 to 24 hours following ingestion in cats and 36 to 72 hours in dogs. These animals will no longer urinate because they are unable to manufacture urine. They will be lethargic, anorexic, and dehydrated, develop oral ulcers, salivate, and possibly have seizures until becoming comatose. Urine production gradually decreases until no urine is being produced. The kidneys are often swollen and painful.

    Hyperphosphatemia (high phosphorous levels in the blood) may be seen within 3 hours of ingestion. Commercial test kits may detect serum concentrations of ethylene glycol 1 to 2 hours after ingestion. Kidney markers BUN and creatinine begin to increase 12 hours after the ingestion of ethylene glycol. Hyperkalemia (high blood potassium levels) corresponds with the decrease in urine production. Approximately 50% of affected patients will have low levels of blood calcium and increased levels of serum glucose.

    The prognosis depends upon the dose of ethylene glycol originally received by the patient and the time lapse between ingestion and the administration of treatment. In dogs, the prognosis is good when the toxicosis is recognized and treated within five hours following ingestion. This period is shorter in the cat, with treatment needing to be instituted within three hours of ingestion for the prognosis to be good.

    An ethylene glycol toxicosis may be recognized by the development of calcium oxalate crystals in the urine 3 to 6 hours after ingestion in the cat and dog, respectively. These crystals appear as a clear six-sided prism. The blood or urine may also be tested for the presence of ethylene glycol. Serum concentrations of ethylene glycol peak 1 to 6 hours after ingestion and will no longer be detected after 48 to 72 hours. Serum osmolality may be measured one hour after ingestion for the detection of ethylene glycol and will remain high for up to 18 hours after ingestion. Many antifreeze solutions today contain sodium fluorescein, a florescent dye that aids in the detection of leaks in automotive coolant systems. A Wood’s lamp or black light may be used to detect fluorescence from the fluorescein stain in the oral cavity, face, vomit, urine, and coat. The dye is excreted up to six hours following ingestion of ethylene glycol in the urine.
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  4. happyguy

    happyguy Guest

    this is a well written article. i believe that dog owners should not shy away from their responsibilities of ensuring the safety of their lovely pets. Adequate attention mustv be given to the pet. thanks once again.
     
  5. jschofield09

    jschofield09 New Member

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    Nice, a very useful one like me who really don't have that enough knowledge when it comes in handling that kind of situation that will happen to my pets.

    Try to visit this also a very helpful site on how to handle pet poison care Dog Poison Care
     
  6. Paul Bright

    Paul Bright New Member

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    This is a great article, thanks for sharing! Just to add to this, there are a lot of human foods that dogs love to eat which are poisonous at the very least dangerous to them if they eat too much. Among which are:

    - alcohol
    - chocolates
    - tea, coffee, anything w/ caffeine
    - human medication
    - avocado
    - grapes and raisins

    We need to be extra vigilant with our dogs as they love human food! :)
     
  7. Goody Girl

    Goody Girl New Member

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    This past Halloween my dog got into a bag of chocolate candy and pretty much ate the whole bag. I when immediately online and found that many people said to use hydrogen peroxide to induce vomiting. I gave him only 2 tbs and in minutes he barfed up everything including rappers. It really worked and I felt so much better that I was able to help him and not have to go to the emergency vet.

    Looking for a grain free treat? visit my website, Home Page
     
  8. MaxAnderson

    MaxAnderson French bulldogs rule :-)

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    Very nice. It is always pleasure to read such an informative article to get info from...
     
  9. Most of the impact of food poisoning to be in small dogs, including the recently discovered for the dog food poisoning, can cause liver damage and even death xylitol sugar-free candy fatal. Many cases, may even be toxic to dogs and other common food pet owners must beware when feeding their dogs.
     
  10. hershey20

    hershey20 Guest

    It really worked and I felt so much better that I was able to help him and not have to go to the emergency vet.
     
  11. spiffy

    spiffy New Member

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    Getting a dog is a responsibility that goes beyond providing the pet with its basic needs. Dogs are very intelligent animals but they would not know what is good for them and what is not. Unfortunately, many poisonous substances can be found in every household. Chemicals, pesticides, antifreeze, plants, human medications and foods can poison our little furry friends. A dog owner can never be careful. Dogs are very active and inquisitive and a poisonous substance that is lying around would be investigated and can be ingested by the pet.

    Great post. Dog owners will find the article very informative. Thanks!!;)
     
  12. Richard Page

    Richard Page New Member

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    This^

    I was horrified to find this out many years ago. I'm aware dark chocolate is especially poisonous to dogs.

    I still find it amazing grapes are so bad but I think the important point here is there are a huge amount of things we eat that are extremely dangerous for dogs and we have no idea about it.

    Keep anything you know is poisonous away from your dog and if you're unsure about anything, simply don't give it to them and if you suspect poisoning, get him/her to a vet yesterday.

    Either way it would be a good idea for all dog owners to have a list of potentially dangerous plants, human foods as well as obvious poisons like anti freeze etc.
    This^

    I was horrified to find this out many years ago. I'm aware dark chocolate is especially poisonous to dogs.

    I still find it amazing grapes are so bad but I think the important point here is there are a huge amount of things we eat that are extremely dangerous for dogs and we have no idea about it.

    Keep anything you know is poisonous away from your dog and if you're unsure about anything, simply don't give it to them and if you suspect poisoning, get him/her to a vet yesterday.

    Either way it would be a good idea for all dog owners to have a list of potentially dangerous plants, human foods as well as obvious poisons like anti freeze etc.
     
  13. rogerharris

    rogerharris New Member

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    Poisoning in case of pets really gets on to nerves as we may not be able to know the real cause for initial hours until we are sure of the symptoms. Once we are it really makes one to take care and the tips you have discussed are commendable one indeed. Thanks for sharing.
     
  14. NoBrainerDogTrainer

    NoBrainerDogTrainer New Member

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    Quote and Poison

    The quote at the bottom of your forum is from Hunter S. Thompson

    Thank you for reminding me to write about poisoning in our pets. I need to add some articles to my new blog.

    ~Jack



     
  15. JordanWalker

    JordanWalker New Member

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    Great post!
    Thank you for sharing this helpful information to all pet owners out there. Now I know what to do when this situation will occur. I have put the dangerous rat poison in a safety box and also I don't give him human foods that are dangerous to my Max. I don't leave my dog at home alone since we will know what will happen.
     
  16. primedpaws

    primedpaws New Member

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    Treatment for a poisoned dog is specific for the poison involved and the symptoms. If your pet just gobbled up poison, the treatment may begin by making your pet vomit. Vomiting is actually harmful if your pet ate something that will cause a lung infection if any of the vomitus is coughed into the lungs. For example, poisons that contain petroleum products cause lung infections (aspiration pneumonia) when vomited.
     

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