I don't think anyone summarized you. Where I have done my little bit of training, beginning heeling is taught generally with exercises done IN PLACE, teaching the dog heel position, attention and focus BEFORE MOVEMENT. Heel position is anywhere from the head to the withers of the dog. The AKC defines heel position as: Most people train for the ear to be at the side seam of your pants. The dog should be about 4" from your leg, parallel to you and your direction of movement. So a just a few questions if you don't mind, since you have asserted you are a licensed trainer, Borzoimom. How does doing abrupt turns (which result in the puppy hitting the end of the leash) teach a dog not to pull and to look at you? Do you feel that training attention is important? If so, how do you go about teaching this to a puppy? How does saying "HEEL" to an untrained puppy result in that puppy learning to heel? What is this something you are talking about? With your level of experience with training drug detection dogs, and your many years of training and showing dogs, if you can find the time to go over these questions, maybe we can all learn from you. Thanks in advance!